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Early Childhood Education*: Research Help

This Research Guide provides information about early childhood education resources found in the SCTC libraries and online.

APA Format

What is Plagiarism?

According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, "plagiarism" means:

  • An act of copying the ideas or words of another person without giving credit to that person

Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism

There are several types of plagiarism ranging from direct plagiarism to copyright infringement. Here is a short list of tips to help you stay honest in your work.

  1. Don't procrastinate with your research and assignments.
  2. Commit to doing your own work.
  3. Take careful notes, and collect citation information as you collect your sources.
  4. Use quotations and paraphrasing when absolutely necessary. 
  5. Ask for help.
  6. When in doubt--cite.

Why Is It Necessary To Cite Sources?

Interesting question. As you gather resources and materials for a research paper, it is essential to acknowledge the authors whose ideas you are using to validate and add credence to your own work. List below are few reasons on why you should cite sources from the University of Albany - University Libraries.

  • Citations reflect the careful and thorough work you have put into locating and exploring your sources.
  • Citations help readers understand the context of your argument and are a courtesy to the reader.
  • Citations allow you to acknowledge those authors who contributed to your learning and your work.
  • Citations, by illustrating your own learning process, also draw attention to the originality and legitimacy of your own ideas.


Example of APA Citations

Listed below are few examples of the most common APA citations students will create for a Reference page or bibliography.

Print Book Citations

Basic Book Format:    Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

  • McGee, L.M. & Richgels, D. J. (2008). Literacy's Beginnings:Supporting young reader and writers. Boston: Pearson.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Author, 

A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

  • Whitehurst, G.J. & Lonigan, C. J. (2002). Emergent literacy:Development from prereaders to readers. In Neuman, S. B,& Dickinson, D. K. Editors, Handbook of early literacy research (11-20) New York: Guildford Press.

APA eBook Citation

  • Whitehead, M. R. D. (2002). Developing language and literacy with young children. Retrieved from

Journal and Magazine Citations

Journal Article

  • Shaughnessy, A., & Sanger, D. (2005). Kindergarten teachers' perceptions of language and literacy development, speech-language pathologists, and language interventions. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 26(2), 67-84,121-122. Retrieved from


Basic Website

  • Why is early literacy important? (n.d.). Retrieved from

Document from a Website

  • Sheier, C. (2013). ABC's of early literacy: The importance of developing early literacy skills. Retrieved from


APA citation basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

APA Handout

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How to Analyze Scholarly Articles

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Citefast - Online Citation Generator

Citefast is an online citation generator that automatically formats citations in APA, MLA, and Chicago Styles.